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Baseball (from the English name baseball, which comes from the word base meaning base and the word ball meaning ball) is a team sport in which the ball is hit with a bat. The basic goal of the offensive team’s game is to hit the thrown ball in such a way that before the opposing defense catches the ball, the attacking players ‘win’ one of the four marked bases.
There is also a sub-variant of baseball that is played on a smaller field with a slightly larger ball called softball, and is more suitable for women’s and younger age categories. Baseball has been a standard sport at the Olympic Games since the 1992 Games in Barcelona.
Rules of baseball
Baseball is a game between two teams of nine players each led by a manager, played on a fenced field under the supervision of one or more umpires. The winner is the team that wins more runs (points) at the end of the game.
Points can only be won by the team that is in the attack phase, while the team that is in defense tries to get into the attack phase by throwing out three attackers. A point is won when one of the team’s players in the attack wins all four marked bases in the allowed way.
Baseball live scores and field
The field has the shape of a fan, at the top of which is the home base. The infield is a part of the playing field that has the shape of a square at the top of which are the bases: home base, first base, second base and third base.
The distance between the bases is 27.45 m. Pitcher’s mound is a hill located in the middle of the infield. On it is the pitcher’s plate (a thin rectangular plate made of rubber), which is 18.30 m from the top of the home base. The
Outfield is the part of the field between the foul lines, and the foul lines are extensions of the sides of the infield between home and first base, that is, home and third bases. The infield and outfield, including the foul lines, form Fair territory, while the rest of the area is Foul territory.
The distance from home base to the nearest fence, stands or other objects in the fair territory must be 76 m or more, and it is recommended that it be 98 m along the foul lines and 122 m along the middle of the field.
There is a backstop (protective net) behind home base, and it is recommended that it, as well as all other objects (stands, fences, etc.) in foul territory, be at least 18 m away from the nearest base.
The game has 9 innings. An inning is a part of the game in which both teams participate in the defense and attack phase.
In the first half of the inning, the home team is in defense and the visiting team is in attack, while in the second half, the visiting team is in defense and the home team is in attack.
The team is in the defense phase when all its players with baseball gloves are arranged on the field according to their positions. The team’s goal in defense is to get into the attack phase by throwing out three attackers, because points (runs) are won only on attack.
The goal of the attacking team is to win a run (point) by winning the first, second, third and home bases, i.e. by covering all four bases.
The team is in the attack phase when its players go out to bat one after the other in a predetermined order (Line up), while the other players wait their turn on the bench. After all nine players have had their turn, they start again from the first in the line up.
The attacking team tries to win a point by conquering all 4 bases. The players of the defending team are trying to prevent her from doing so. The hitters start the attack so that the first player in the line up takes the baseball bat and goes out to bat (at the beginning of the game it is the hitter who is first in the line up.
In the later innings it is the hitter who is in in the line up, the first behind the player who ended up at bat in the previous inning, i.e. at bat). At that moment he is the batter and is trying to get first base.
Batter A batter
is an attacker who takes his position in the batter’s box with a bat. One at bat is called an at bat, and each batter goes to bat several times during one game.
The batsman’s at bat ends: with his out and when the batsman becomes a runner. Batter becomes a runner and gains first base without the possibility of being thrown out when:
The umpire awards four fouls (four fouls) he is touched by a thrown ball that he did not attempt to hit (hit by pitch), except when the ball touched the batter in the strike zone (then it is strike only), or the batsman did not try to avoid the ball (then it is a ball, i.e. a bad ball).
If interfered with by the catcher or any other player on the opposing team, a ball hit in fair territory touches the umpire or runner in the infield before it touches any fielder.
A batter becomes a runner when
He hits a fair ball, the opposing team’s catcher does not catch a third strike, except when there is a runner on first base with less than two outs (eg when there is one out with a runner on first base, then the batter is out without regardless of whether the catcher caught the ball or not), hit the ball over the fence in fair territory, i.e. hit a home run, and in five other, not very common situations.
Runner (runner) is an attacker who tries to win a point for his team by winning all four bases. The runner’s role ends: with his out, winning a run, throwing out the third hitter (batter or runner) – the runner remains on base, but in the next inning his team will start the offense with the bases empty.
A runner can gain bases in the following ways
On a good hit by his teammate, by ‘stealing a base’, i.e. by taking advantage of the inattention of the defenders to gain the next base at an opportune moment, or simply by being faster than the defense (in this case, the defense can throw out the runner only if the defense a player while the runner has no contact with the base touches the runner with the ball or the glove in which the ball is).
When he advances one base without the possibility of being thrown out because he is forced to clear the base for the batter who has become a runner in a situation where the batter becomes a runner and gains first base without the possibility to be thrown out (There can only be one runner on one base. E.g. if the batter on four balls (four poorly thrown balls) gets first base, the runner from first base moves to second base).
When the umpire calls a balk (e.g. when the pitcher makes any motion as if he is going to throw the batter but does not throw the ball, then when the pitcher ‘feints’ a throw to first base without throwing the ball, then when the pitcher throws the ball to the batter without stepping according to the home base, and in 10 other situations). and in a dozen other, not very common, situations.
Defensive players in any case try to get the batter as few bases as possible after he becomes a runner.
The teams in defense try to get into the attack phase by throwing out three attackers (batters or runners) in which they will be able to score points. No points are scored in defense.
The team has nine players, so nine of them are in the defense according to precisely determined positions. They are also in a line up that they will go out to bat when they come to attack. The success of the defense depends mostly on the pitcher.
Pitcher A pitcher
is a defensive player who throws balls to batters. A hitter’s success depends on the speed and precision of his throws, changing the types of balls he throws (e.g. fast, slider, change,…) and changing the location of the balls (e.g. outside and low, inside and high…). Each team must have at least five pitchers, and MLB (Major League Baseball) teams have more than ten pitchers.
The pitcher throws balls to the catcher, who, due to the danger of the ball being scraped or thrown into the ground, must wear protective equipment consisting of leg guards, a vest, a neck guard, a mask and a helmet. The catcher gives signals to the pitcher and leads the team in defense.
Other defensive players
Other defensive players are divided into infielders and outfielders:
An infielder is a player in the infield (besides the pitcher and catcher there are four more infielders: first baseman or 1B), second baseman or 2B, player third baseman (3B) and shortstop (SS)). An outfielder is a player in the outfield (three: left fielder (LF), center fielder (CF) and right fielder (RF)).
It is allowed for defensive players to change positions up to several times, although this will be at most once during one game, because the players are prepared for certain positions.
In defense, the team tries to get into the attacking phase by throwing out three opposing attackers, in which they will be able to score points. Defensive players are arranged according to their positions on the field and have baseball gloves that make it easier for them to catch the ball.
A batter is thrown out when
his fly ball, either in fair or foul territory, is caught by a fielder, the catcher has caught a third strike, the catcher has not caught a third strike, and the runner is on first base with less than two outs, he is touched by the ball in an attempt to hit the third strike (otherwise it is only the first or second strike), the ball hit in fair territory is touched before the defender.
After the ball is hit, his bat makes a second contact with the ball in fair territory, after the third strike that is not caught, the catcher is touched by the ball (or the glove containing the ball) or the ball is thrown to first base before he touches it.
Then, after hitting the ball in fair territory, he is touched by the ball (or the glove with the ball in it) or the ball is thrown to first base before he touches it, he intentionally interferes with the defensive player in catching or throwing the ball, and in another dozen, not very frequent the situation.
A runner is thrown out when
Runs more than 1m down the line between the bases in an attempt to avoid being thrown out by being touched by a fielder except when.
Attempts to avoid a fielder catching the ball so as not to interfere with him, or after touching first base leaves the line in an apparent attempt to advance to the next base, intentionally touches the ball in the infield or interferes with a fielder catching the ball, is touched by the ball (or glove into which the ball is) until it has contact with the base.
If he does not return to the base before the ball is caught in the air (see FLY BALL), if he or the next base.
In a situation where he must advance (see FORCE PLAY) to clear a base for a batter or a runner coming behind him, they are touched before that base is reached, two runners are on the same base (if two runners touch the same base, the later runner is thrown out).
He was touched by a ball hit in fair territory before it touched or passed the infielder, and in six other, not very common, situations.